Structure & function — Science Leadership Academy @ Center City
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles, cells, tissues, organs. Relationship Between Cell Structure & Function. By Contributor; Updated April 24 , Each component of an animal cell has a specific function. Covers cell shape and size and their relation to function. The structure-function relationship is a central theme running throughout biology. . Describe the relationship between the cell surface area and cell membrane.
Cellular organelles and structure
Each ribosome, in its own way, is like a small machine in a factory, spiraling out proteins on instructions that arrive from its nucleus. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site where the apparatus of the membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell.
The rough ER is given this name because of the ribosomes found on its surface. Newly made proteins leave these ribosomes and are put in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they will be modified chemically. Golgi Apparatus Proteins made in the rough ER move next into an organelle called the Golgi apparatus.
This organelle was discovered by the Italian scientist Camillo Golgi. In the Golgi apparatus, proteins are put all over the cell Lysosomes Even the neatest, cleanest factory needs a cleanup crew, and that's what lysosomes LY-suh-sohmz are.
Lysosomes are small organelles filled with enzymes. One function of lysosomes is the digestion of lipids into molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. Lysosomes are also involved in breaking down organelles that have outlived their usefulness. A number of serious human diseases can be traced to lysosomes. A diagram representing the cell as a factory. The cell membrane is represented as the "factory walls.
The ribosome is represented as the "production room" and the final protein made by the ribosome is represented as the "product. Reticulum comes from the Latin word for net. Basically, an endoplasmic reticulum is a plasma membrane found inside the cell that folds in on itself to create an internal space known as the lumen. This lumen is actually continuous with the perinuclear space, so we know the endoplasmic reticulum is attached to the nuclear envelope.
There are actually two different endoplasmic reticuli in a cell: The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protein production where we make our major product - the toy while the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is where lipids fats are made accessories for the toy, but not the central product of the factory.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum The rough endoplasmic reticulum is so-called because its surface is studded with ribosomes, the molecules in charge of protein production. When a ribosome finds a specific RNA segment, that segment may tell the ribosome to travel to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and embed itself. The protein created from this segment will find itself inside the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where it folds and is tagged with a usually carbohydrate molecule in a process known as glycosylation that marks the protein for transport to the Golgi apparatus.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the nuclear envelope, and looks like a series of canals near the nucleus. Proteins made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as destined to either be a part of a membrane, or to be secreted from the cell membrane out of the cell.
Cells: Explain the relationship between structure and function of a part of an organism.
Without an rough endoplasmic reticulum, it would be a lot harder to distinguish between proteins that should leave the cell, and proteins that should remain.
Thus, the rough endoplasmic reticulum helps cells specialize and allows for greater complexity in the organism. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids and steroids, instead of being involved in protein synthesis.
These are fat-based molecules that are important in energy storage, membrane structure, and communication steroids can act as hormones.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is also responsible for detoxifying the cell.
It is more tubular than the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and is not necessarily continuous with the nuclear envelope. Every cell has a smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but the amount will vary with cell function. A diagram showing the structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum 3 is continuous with the nucleus 1 and makes proteins to be processed by the Golgi apparatus 8which it is not continuous with.
The smoother endoplasmic reticulum is more tubular than the rough, and is not studded with ribosomes. Golgi apparatus aka Golgi body aka Golgi We mentioned the Golgi apparatus earlier when we discussed the production of proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. If the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula are how we make our product, the Golgi is the mailroom that sends our product to customers. It is responsible for packing proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum into membrane-bound vesicles tiny compartments of lipid bilayer that store molecules which then translocate to the cell membrane.
At the cell membrane, the vesicles can fuse with the larger lipid bilayer, causing the vesicle contents to either become part of the cell membrane or be released to the outside. Different molecules actually have different fates upon entering the Golgi. This determination is done by tagging the proteins with special sugar molecules that act as a shipping label for the protein.
The shipping department identifies the molecule and sets it on one of 4 paths: Once the vesicle is made, it moves to the cell membrane and fuses with it.
Molecules in this pathway are often protein channels which allow molecules into or out of the cell, or cell identifiers which project into the extracellular space and act like a name tag for the cell.
Before these vesicles can fuse with the cell membrane, they must accumulate in number, and require a special chemical signal to be released. The final destination for proteins coming through the Golgi is the lysosome. Cartoon representing the golgi apparatus sorting proteins into one of the four paths described above: Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, and lack membrane bound organelles.
They are the oldest cells on earth. Prokaryotes often move using special structures such as flagella or cilia. Cells have many structures inside of them called organelles.
Relationship Between Cell Structure & Function | Sciencing
These organelles are like the organs in a human and they help the cell stay alive. Eukaryotes also have a golgi apparatus that packages and distributes proteins.
- What is a cell
- The relationship between structure and function of a part of an organism.
- Eukaryotic cells
Mitochondria are the power house of the cell and provide the cell with energy. Both plant and animal cells have mitochondria. Lysosomes are like the stomach of the cell.