Poetry as Enchantment – Dana Gioia
Black Birds As she flicked the rubber against her wrist her eyes linger into when my energy gives life to a shiny planet which rolls, unleashed, across a green silk sky This poem reflects a bad relationship: Dear whoever cares, My heart hurts. Your sweetness, tender words, are kisses on my dissected heart. Since “ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and the physical . ) Constant social intercourse had dissipated their energy and talents and . this poem raises serious questions against the ethics of animal dissection in endangered nature, its species or the environment as a whole is concerned. Environmental energy availability can explain much of the spatial variation in species richness. Such species–energy relationships encompass.
Understanding the factors controlling this variation is one of ecology's most important challenges Hutchinson ; Brown ; Rosenzweig ; Gaston There is now a growing consensus that much of the pattern can be explained by differences in environmental energy availability Hawkins et al. Currie ; Roy et al. These relationships exhibit a variety of forms, which has stimulated much debate regarding which predominate and the factors that give rise to this diversity Waide et al. Much of the debate has focused on the influence of spatial scale on the form of the species—energy relationship.
Generally, studies conducted at small spatial grains, the unit of investigation, document unimodal species—energy relationships; studies that use larger grain sizes, scattered across one or more regions, find an increasing proportion of monotonic positive species—energy relationships. Although species—energy relationships are typically strong their relative strengths may vary considerably see papers reviewed by Waide et al. The form of species—energy relationships, and their underlying causal mechanisms, may depend on how energy availability is measured.
Previous studies have used a number of currencies, which can be divided into two main categories Evans et al. First, solar energy metrics, such as temperature or ultra-violet radiation UVrecord the amount of solar energy falling upon the earth's surface. Broadly speaking, solar energy metrics may give rise to species—energy relationships through two pathways. Alternatively, the thermoregulatory load hypothesis suggests that high temperature may enable endotherms to switch investment from keeping warm to growth and reproduction, thus promoting larger populations that are less vulnerable to extinction Turner et al.
Other things being equal, small bodied endotherm species are more vulnerable to heat loss Jamesthus the smallest endotherm species may exhibit the strongest species—energy relationships Cousins Second, productive-energy metrics record the amount of resources available for consumers to turn into biomass.
This can be measured as net primary productivity, or its correlates, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVIwhich is a satellite derived measure of the greenness of vegetation Boelman et al. The most frequently cited pathway linking productive energy to species richness is the more individuals hypothesis MIH ; this suggests that in areas with high plant productivity consumers may be able to maintain larger populations that reduce their extinction risk, thus elevating species richness Wright Both the evolutionary rates and thermoregulatory load hypotheses predict that solar energy metrics will be a better predictor of species richness than productive energy metrics.
A recent review found that this was the case at high northern latitudes, but that the converse was true in other areas Hawkins et al. In contrast, Kaspari et al. Discussion of the diversity of forms and relative strengths of species—energy relationships has largely been framed in the context of entire assemblages.
Consideration of how the identity and associated characteristics of the species contributing to species—energy relationships influence their form and strength has been relatively muted, despite the fact that this may provide important information on the underlying causal mechanisms. Species vary, however, in a number of other traits which, depending on the causal mechanisms that drive species—energy relationships, may influence how species richness responds to energy availability Evans et al.
Specialist species, defined in terms of narrow niche breadths and use of scarce resources, may therefore respond more strongly to energy availability than less specialized ones.
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Second, the transfer of energy between trophic levels is inefficient and thus the number of trophic levels may be regulated by the amount of energy at the base of the food chain Oksanen et al. The longer food chains in highly productive areas may thus enable greater numbers of predatory species to occur.
Species—energy relationships, constructed for different trophic levels, may thus vary in their form and strength. Third, migratory species may be able to exploit seasonal flushes in resource availability more fully than residents and thus exhibit stronger species—energy relationships Rabenold More generally, the inheritance of ecological traits through the sharing of common ancestors may introduce taxonomic bias into the form of species—energy relationships.
Here, we provide one of the first comprehensive assessments of how the form and relative strength of the species—energy relationship depends on the type of energy metric used and the characteristics of the constituent species. We use the breeding avifauna of Britain as a case study.
We construct species—energy relationships, using annual and seasonal measures of solar and productive energy, across the entire assemblage and groups of species classified by specialization, trophic level, population size, body size, habitat type, threat status based on population trendsmigratory status and taxonomy. Fieldwork was coordinated by a network of regional organisers and undertaken by experienced volunteer ornithologists.
For most quadrats very few species are likely to have been unrecorded and we thus consider our data to be free of significant concerns regarding under-sampling. These constitute one of the best sets of distributional data for any assemblage and have been successfully used in numerous macroecological studies e.
Structure of the species--energy relationship.
We excluded marine species and vagrants species recorded as a few individuals typically in only one or two quadratsbut retained the more naturalized introductions, giving a total of species.
We divided species into those with niche positions below the median, which use relatively common resources e. Parus caerulus and those with high niche positions that use relatively scarce resources e. Heonce wrote to his friend Sir George Beaumont in He has proved himself to be a true teacher feeling an intense pain in hurting a simple hazelnut tree.
This love for nature and her objects epitomizes his noble concern as a poet of nature, i.
Wordsworth deserves praise and admiration for his nature friendly outlook at a time when nature-destroying processes had begun. Air pollution and environmental changes have found an implicit expression in many of his nature poems.Everything Is An Act Of Love - Neale Donald Walsch
Wordsworth enjoyed the beauty of the morning spread over the city of London in a smokeless atmosphere: The beauty of the morning, silent, bare, Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie Open unto the fields, and to the sky, All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.
Certainly, the poet would not have enjoyed the serene morning splendor if pollution were in the air, and din and bustle of everyday busy London life were there.
There is a fierce storm accompanied by a heavy downpour of rain in the opening lines: There was a roaring in the air all night; The rain came heavily and fell in floods; Sen et al. The old leech gatherer is the symbol of firmness in adversity. The old man says: Once I could meet with them on every side; But they have dwindled long by slow decay; Yet I still persevere, and find them where I may. The slow decay of the leeches might be due to excessive catch or some environmental damage, which is, of course, an ecological cause.
In this connection, the nature poetry of Wordsworth has a notable contribution to the ecological consciousness advocated by ecocriticism today.
Structure of the species--energy relationship.
The purity and sanctity of the natural world is presented undeniably to the poet; the birds sing; the flowers grow and both appear to take a joy in living. The poet reiterates his belief in the universe as alive and in a state of continuous pleasure. Nature is so much alive that he finds natural objects in possession of human senses: The budding trigs are animated spreading out their leaf-fans with a conscious intention of catching the healthy, fresh, and breezy air.
The sense of natural delight is so overwhelming that it throws its light into something else which the poet has been very much concerned about. The poet is touched by every natural object and its beauty, because he believes that nature is alive and in constant physical communication with humans.
Our impulse from a vernal wood May teach you more of man, Of moral evil and of good, Than all the sages can. Sweet is the lore which nature brings; Our meddling intellect Mis-shapes the beauteous forms of things We murder to dissect. Enough of science and of Art; Close up those barren leaves; Come forth and bring with you a heart That watches and receives.
We are led straight into the discussion of whether animals as the inhabitants of the natural world as humans are, should be treated like this or not.
We find the speaker mindful of the marring effects of human cognition and action upon animal otherness. We also see that human community is repeatedly represented as a product of such difference and of its literally violent clashes with human perceptions and actions.
Such an intense love for nature and her objects Wordsworth has got in his heart and manifested it in his poetry. As a matter of fact, Wordsworth and almost all the other Romantics were aware of their participation in a literary tradition of immemorial standing, whose most proximate version was the concept of the Pastoral, mediated by writers from classical times to the sentimental writers of the late 18th century.
But he inter-mingled his personal experiences with the spectacle of human life through the use of nature.
Wordsworth lived in an age when industrial boom was prevalent everywhere and the modern way of life was replacing the age-old rustic way of living. The sounding cataract haunted the poet like a passion during his tender age; the tall rock, the mountain and the deep and gloomy woods, their colors and their forms were then to him an appetite. But with the passage of time, the sensuous animal pleasure is gone; he now perceives a living being in nature that can guide his heart and soul; that guides the soul of the entire mankind.
My dear, dear sister! This belief of the poet is similar to the ecological notions about nature and its workings. Amazing enough that the modern ecological science of today holds the same opinion about nature what Wordsworth felt years before this branch of science came to its full shape and discipline. At the same time, he has interwoven his poems with various themes. Along with the various facets and features of his poetry as a whole, an exuberance of poetic spontaneity with a deep moral and ecocritical insight is omnipresent particularly in his nature poems.
But the inclusion and infusion of ecological elements in his poetry has taken him to another height. His nature poetry plays a vital role to restore the severed connection between humans and the natural environment through engenderment of an ethical attitude of humility and respect for the non-human world.
From this perspective, Wordsworth is not only a spiritual thinker but also an ecological activist of his time so far as the eco-scientific phenomena in his poetry are concerned. It may not be impartial to say that his poetry springs only from his spiritual insight; there are obvious instances in this research paper which relate his poetry to a piece of literature having a subtle touch of ecological elements.
Wordsworth and the environmental tradition. London and New York, N.