Romantic nationalism - Wikipedia
Romanticism was an intellectual movement that developed among German thinkers during the time of the conquest of Europe (), and it fed directly into the fostering of German nationalism. What Are Examples of Realism?. Romantic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy Among the key themes of Romanticism, and its most enduring legacy, the cultural assertions of romantic .. To take one example, the nation now known as Iraq intentionally joined together three Ottoman vilayets, uniting Kurds. A consideration of the relationship between Romanticism and national . Leaving aside the fact that the ruling élites in each of these three multi-ethnic empires searched for . as the case may be, the relationship between nation and 'nationalism.' Thus, for example, in the period between the two world wars Carlton J. H.
In this phase, basic linguistic norms were sought and formulated and historical contexts were traced; in short, the potential nation was defined in a scholarly fashion according to the individual features that distinguished it from other groups.
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The Enlightenment scholars did not, however, necessarily come from the ranks of the ethnie for which they had sympathy and in which they took an interest. Very often, researchers so identified with their subject of inquiry that they assumed an emotional relationship to them.
Among the national movements that experienced this phase later, in the course of the nineteenth century, we know of cases when, by contrast, the emotional relationship to the nation or, more precisely, the ethnie, became the motivation to do scholarly work. Blood ties, however, were not decisive: The leading actors of the national movement, in the proper sense of the word, resolved to sell their fellow citizens, members of their ethnic group, on this idea.
The phase of national agitation began, of resolute efforts to convince members of the potential nation that their national identity should be a source of pride. The nation was meant to become the basic security that they could turn to for protection, but also an obligation, a group for which it was necessary to work, whose members it was necessary not only to identify with but also, indeed mainly, to be in solidarity with. Some of his ideas, however, would later be in accord with the approach of the Romantics, and would serve to strengthen their arguments.
Let us consider several examples. Certainly, the enthusiasm of Josef Jungmann — for the Czech language and its spreading may reasonably be considered a reflection of Romantic influences, even though inspired by the pre-Romantic Herder. We encounter conspicuously Romantic approaches not only in the phase of national agitation, but also, much later, in the third phase of the national movement, which is distinguished by the modern nation already being fully established and national identity achieving mass acceptance.
The cult of language, the Romantic idealization of the past, and the cult of the common people were stereotypes that accompanied the national movement also to the time when it was fully formed and national existence was assured—not infrequently in the form of the nation-state. The approaches we characterize as Romantic had, to be sure, their own special place in the forming of the nation. In order to determine their role we must, however, ask what roads the processes of forming the modern nation actually took.
Not till the period between the two world wars did it begin to be used—actually only in the United States—as an instrument of scholarly historical analysis. Thus, for example, in the period between the two world wars Carlton J.
Hayes — differentiated between six types of nationalism including Liberal, Jacobin, and integral. Hans Kohn —writing later, was satisfied with two: In other words, the nation is presented as the product of nationalism. Causality is merely shifted onto another level: To be more specific: Was it perhaps a matter of how enthusiastically the individual propagandists made their speeches and how devotedly they worked?
The role of Romanticism— providing that we mean by it increased emotionality, the search for new security, and growing subjectivization—was manifested rather in verbalization and stylization, which functioned as commentary or catalyst. Yet it was not only a matter of commentary and an approach to objective processes, but also one of the articulation and form that the rationalization of these activities and efforts assumed, which aimed at the mobilization of the masses of the nation.
Despite the differences of opinion, which are intensified by an attempt to come up with ever new, more inventive solutions, there is a certain, albeit not always admitted consensus: Every nation, every national movement, sought and found a certain temporal dimension in its existence, or, more precisely, an historical dimension of the life of its members.
The past was presented by the national movement at two levels, which cannot be placed in opposition to each other: At this second level, the level of collective memory and the creation of national myths, Romanticism could to a certain extent also be employed. The nation-forming processes usually had their own linguistic and ethnic component, whether a vernacular, which sought the road to codification, or the rationalistic linguistic unification of state territory.
Linguistic homogenization was anyway a process that ran in parallel with the formation of modern nations, where both processes often penetrated each other and also clashed.
Here, as well, we must differentiate between two levels: The cult of folk customs and folk art, which is usually linked with Romanticism, was often strikingly employed here. The formation of nations proceeded roughly in parallel with the processes of modernization, which, however, cannot be reduced to industrialization, as Gellner would have it. The changes brought on by modernization, therefore, include increasing social mobility and migration, as well as the introduction of rational administration, universal education, and the expansion of communications.
Without a certain level of education among the public, without a certain level of social communication, any national propaganda was doomed to failure. Here lies the boundary that even the most enthusiastic Romantic could not break through. National agitation, the national idea, could only be comprehensible to the masses and acceptable to them if it corresponded to some extent with their everyday experience: In short, the generally recognized factors of national mobilization include the existence of nationally relevant conflicts of interest.
What are three examples of the relationship between Romanticism and nationalism before 1850?
By those I mean the kinds of conflicts where the groups clashing are differentiated not only by their interests but also by their language, ethnicity, or nationality. It could be, say, a conflict between a peasant whose mother tongue was Estonian or Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Slovenian and a German or Polish-speaking landowner, or a conflict between ethnically different groups of officials over posts in the civil service.
Ultimately, the struggle for political power among the politicians of various nationalities was also of this nature. Socio-psychological factors, which aimed at the feelings of people, were employed in national agitation, and could, under certain circumstances and over a certain period, become the domain of the Romantics.
This is true of national celebrations, funerals of important people, and public protests.
Here, however, one must also take into account manipulation, the cool calculating use of emotional elements in education for nationhood. One must bear in mind, however, that this emotional form of national movement and national aims could be effective only on the assumption that the individual movements had already reached a mass level, that is to say, when there was no longer any doubt about the successful culmination of the nation-building process.
An interpretation of an historical transformation process as complex as the formation of the modern nation which considers only a single cause, must be consigned to the realm of wishful thinking. Certainly, we come across expressions that can clearly be classed under Romanticism disregarding the fact that the term is used with different accents for different cultures.
Mostly, however, the approaches of the propagandists at the inception of the national movement and also of those during its mass phase are marked by a combination of rational and emotive arguments, a combination of idealistic declarations and pragmatic politics, and also by personal engagement. Without wanting to contrive a primitive direct link between the social standing of an author and his ideas, we would argue that it is clear that a national movement whose leaders come mainly from the ranks of the aristocracy will, in its forms and demands, be different from a national movement whose leaders are connected chiefly with the farmers or pen-pushers.
It would, of course, be interesting to analyze the relationship between the social composition, or social bases of the leaders of the national movement, and the proportion of Romantic feeling and arguments in their propaganda. Who were the texts addressed to, who were the readers of the texts that we have before us? Here it will again be useful to differentiate between a once-existing audience the actual initial readers of these texts on the one hand, and the intended audience those whom the author considered to be his audience, who imagined them as his national public on the other.
The fundamental character trait of the patriot was, understandably, devotion to the nation, to the country, a willingness to sacrifice oneself for the nation, that is to say, for the members of that nation. Devotion to supra-personal national values and interests was of course contingent on a certain amount of knowledge: In relation to this definition two questions arise: Was it not, after all, the Romantic heroes who sacrificed themselves for their nation in Poland, Hungary, or Bulgaria?
In Prussiathe development of spiritual renewal as a means to engage in the struggle against Napoleon was argued by, among others, Johann Gottlieb Fichte —a disciple of Kant. The word Volkstumor "folkhood", was coined in Germany as part of this resistance to French hegemony. The first, original, and truly natural boundaries of states are beyond doubt their internal boundaries.
Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long before any human art begins; they understand each other and have the power of continuing to make themselves understood more and more clearly; they belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable whole.
Rossini 's opera William Tell marked the onset of the Romantic Operausing the central national myth unifying Switzerland; and in Brussels, a riot August after an opera that set a doomed romance against a background of foreign oppression Auber 's La Muette de Portici sparked the Belgian Revolution of —31, the first successful revolution in the model of Romantic nationalism.
Verdi 's opera choruses of an oppressed people inspired two generations of patriots in Italy, especially with "Va pensiero" Nabucco Under the influence of romantic nationalism, among economic and political forces, both Germany and Italy found political unity, and movements to create nations similarly based upon ethnic groups. It would flower in the Balkans see for example, the Carinthian Plebiscite, along the Baltic Sea, and in the interior of Central Europe, where in the eventual outcome, the Habsburgs succumbed to the surge of Romantic nationalism.
Concert of Nations and Revolutions of Following the ultimate collapse of the First French Empire with the fall of Napoleon, conservative elements took control in Europe, led by the Austrian noble Klemens von Metternichideals of the balance of power between the great powers of Europe dominated continental politics of the first half of the 19th century.Romanticism and Modernism
Following the Congress of Viennaand subsequent Concert of Europe system, several major empires took control of European politics. Numerous movements developed around various cultural groups, who began to develop a sense of national identity. While initially, all of these revolutions failed, and reactionary forces would re-establish political control, the revolutions marked the start of the steady progress towards the end of the Concert of Europe under the dominance of a few multi-national empires and led to the establishment of the modern nation state in Europe; a process that would not be complete for over a century and a half.
Central and Eastern Europe 's political situation was partly shaped by the two World Warswhile many national identities in these two regions formed modern nation states when the collapse of the Soviet Union and the multinational states Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia led to numerous new states forming during the last two decades of the 20th century.
Folk culture[ edit ] "'Good evening, uncle! A drawing by John Bauer on Swedish folklore Romantic nationalism inspired the collection of folklore by such people as the Brothers Grimm. The view that fairy tales, unless contaminated from outside literary sources, were preserved in the same form over thousands of years, was not exclusive to Romantic Nationalists, but it fit in well with their views that such tales expressed the primordial nature of a people.
They rejected many tales they collected because of their similarity to tales by Charles Perraultwhich they thought proved they were not truly German tales; Sleeping Beauty survived in their collection because the tale of Brynhildr convinced them that the figure of the sleeping princess was authentically German. They also altered the language used, changing each "Fee" fairy to an enchantress or wise woman, every "prince" to a "king's son", every "princess" to a "king's daughter".