The relationship between spotted fever group Rickettsiae and ixodid ticks.
The overall prevalence of SFG rickettsiae detected in ixodid ticks in nine Tick- borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are caused by obligate To infer relationships between the obtained amplicons and other. of spotted fever group rickettsiae in questing ixodid ticks collected in of relationships between temperature and developmental rates of tick. The relationship between spotted fever group Rickettsiae and ixodid ticks. Socolovschi C(1), Mediannikov O, Raoult D, Parola P.
He did not recall tick or mite bites or exposures to house mice in the month preceding his illness. However, he was frequently exposed to ticks and fleas through contact with several household dogs and cats and had recently walked his dogs in grassy fields near his residence.
He often observed various rodents in these fields, including rats and nutria.
- Case Report
- 1. INTRODUCTION
There was no recent history of foreign or domestic travel. The patient was diagnosed with infected arthropod bites and was treated with amoxicillin—clavulanic acid. His symptoms progressed, and within 12 h he developed a nonpruritic, erythematous maculopapular rash on his trunk that soon spread to his extremities.
Antibiotic therapy was changed to cephalexin, but the patient's symptoms persisted.
An infectious disease consultation was obtained 9 days into his illness. The rash also extended to his face and extremities, involving his palms and soles, and included a few scattered pustules on an erythematous base figure 1B. A third lesion, an ulcerated papule, was observed on the distal pretibial aspect of the left lower leg. An enlarged, non-tender lymph node was palpable in the left inguinal region. The patient's leukocyte count was 3.This TICK can KILL YOU in 48 hours!
Other laboratory values were as follows: The patient received a diagnosis of rickettsialpox and was treated with doxycycline as an outpatient. The fever, arthralgias, and myalgias resolved within 2 days, the rash resolved within 1 week, and all laboratory values returned to normal within 1 month. During the diagnostic evaluation, biopsy and serum specimens were obtained and sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC; Atlanta, GA for confirmatory laboratory testing.
Figure 1 View large Download slide Cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with Rickettsia parkeri. A, A diffuse, pink macular rash involving the abdomen.
The relationship between spotted fever group Rickettsiae and Ixodid ticks
However, in Castilla-La Mancha, central Spain, where recreational parks and hunting estates are abundant and humans may be exposed to infected ticks, information on such infections is not available. Therefore, it is worthwhile to characterize Rickettsia spp. Rickettsia species in questing ticks collected in central Spain. A Study area with 20 collection sites where ticks were found black dots of the 39 sites surveyed white and black In this study, we obtained questing adult ticks, representing the most abundant species in the area: The ticks were collected from the vegetation at natural sites surveyed in Castilla-La Mancha by blanket dragging with a cotton flannelette during fall and spring—summer Figurepanel A and classified 5.
At least 3 clones were sequenced for each amplicon. To characterize Rickettsia spp.
The results showed that 27 Of these, 11 were confirmed as R. AHZB genome sequences for all genes analyzed, and the only R. The sequences obtained in this study were deposited in the GenBank under accession nos.
Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Questing Ticks, Central Spain
In the years —, approximately 8, cases of human rickettsioses presumed to be MSF were reported to the Italian Ministry of Health. Regarding the distribution of cases in different parts of Italy, some central Lazio and southern Sardinia, Sicily, and Calabria regions of the country have a particularly high morbidity rate, reaching an average of The diagnosis of MSF in Italy usually depends on clinical evidence supported by serologic confirmation, mainly by the microimmunofluorescence MIF technique.
A major limitation of MIF is cross-reactivity, which renders it unable to differentiate between various SFG rickettsiae 4. Thus, some cases of MSF in Italy, especially where the disease is not endemic, may in fact be due to other rickettsiae. While all life stages of Rh. In a survey in Liguria of ticks recovered from people, most ticks To date, no studies have been conducted of potential rickettsiae in Italian ticks, other than Rhipicephalus spp.
Recently, various Rickettsia species have been found in I. To check whether such bacteria are also present in Italian I. We used molecular-sequence-based identification techniques, which offer high sensitivity and specificity compared with serologic tests and circumvent the need for bacterial culturing. The Study Figure 1 Figure 1.
Location of Ixodes ricinus collection sites and detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae. Dots represent places where ticks were not found to have rickettsiae; different shapes represent the A total of I.
Spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in wild environment in Southern Italy.
Specifically, 89 ticks 70 adults and 19 nymphs were collected by dragging vegetation in different parts of Trentino Province in April—October andand 10 ticks 7 adults and 3 nymphs by dragging in Feltre Veneto Region in March Ten more ticks 7 adults and 3 nymphs were collected from a patient at the Ospedale di Careggi in Firenze in May The man had been bitten in Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi Toscana Region; see Figure 1 a number of hours earlier but did not display any illness.
MIF tests with R. These primers were chosen for an initial screening because they are known to amplify all rickettsiae One hundred nine PCRs were performed, and nine positives two adult females, three adult males, and four nymphs were found.
An initial estimate of the overall prevalence in Italian I. To better establish intrageneric relationships, the nine positive samples were subjected to further PCR analysis with the primer pairs Rr To compare the sequences obtained during this study with those of other rickettsiae, sequences present in GenBank were selected by means of BLAST as well as on the basis of previous reports 1 Sequences were converted to their putative amino acid sequences and aligned by using the program Clustal X ftp: Based on these alignments, nucleotide alignments were performed manually, and phylogenetic relationships were inferred by maximum likelihood ML.
There was a problem providing the content you requested
The appropriate model of sequence evolution was determined by Modeltest 3. Figure 2 Figure 2. Based on analyses in Modeltest 3. Comparisons of the sequences identified with those from closely related SFG Rickettsia spp.