The DNA, RNA and Proteins
Dysferlin is a protein, and "the dysferlin gene" means "the gene which contains the However, the gene (DNA) sits inside a different compartment of the cell (the . Amino acids joined together form a polypeptide and polypeptides make up proteins. Each gene, a distinct segment of DNA codes for a different protein. Proteins. E. DNA encodes for proteins and protein enzymes replicate to maintain DNA.
Sample genetic code with complementary strands. Determining the gene's functionality and position of the gene in the chromosome is called gene mapping.
Recent developments show that scientists are mapping every gene in the human body. They named their project Human Genome Project HGPwhich involves careful study of all the 70, genes in human body. That's some thing unimaginable.
When there is a change in the genetic code it is called mutation. The significance of a DNA is very high. The gene's sequence is like language that instructs cell to manufacture a particular protein. An intermediate language, encoded in the sequence of Ribonucleic Acid RNAtranslates a gene's message into a protein's amino acid sequence.
DNA, RNA and protein – the Central Dogma
It is the protein that determines the trait. This is called central dogma of life. Genes are DNA sequences instruct cells to produce particular proteins, which in turn determine traits.
So now we have an RNA strand.
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A protein is made from amino acids, these form a strand. I show the protein strand as a linear line, but in reality complex interactions between amino acids lead to 3 dimensional forms that are essential for the functioning of the protein.
During this translation, 1 amino acid is added to the protein strand for every 3 bases in the RNA.Proteins and Nucleic Acids
So a RNA sequence of 48 bases codes for a protein strand of 16 amino acids. A certain combination of 3 bases always gives the same amino acids, so we can put the translation into a table see below. We take the first 3 bases from the figure above as example, which are AUG.
There we see our third base and our combination. In this way we can translate the complete RNA sequence into the protein sequence. In the cell But how does this work in an actual cell?
what is the relationship between DNA and proteins? | Yahoo Answers
And why make RNA first and then protein? Why not make protein from the DNA directly? After transcription the RNA is relocated to the cytoplasm of the cell, here it is translated into protein. So the separation of nucleus and cytoplasm prevents protein from being made directly from DNA. But there are other reasons why RNA is made. I will name a few, but not all there are so many.
First, the DNA is well protected in the nucleus against everything that floats around in the cytoplasm, which prevents the DNA from getting damaged. Another reason is that we only have 1 copy of DNA in each cell, but sometimes we need a lot of the same protein. Therefore it would be convenient if we could make more than one copy of the same protein at the same time. So protein can be made 10x as fast.