If you love the job that you do then you become motivated this also Therefore, it is Job satisfaction = Motivation = Teamwork all wrap up in an. () suggests that the positive relationship between job satisfaction and job cigarette rollers have high employee motivation and consequently they were satisfied. analyse and prove the effect of work environment on job performance of. relationship between intrinsic motivation and employee engagement, and extrinsic motivation job appreciation, satisfaction and stress, and four extrinsic factors namely job security, This chapter aims to discuss the research topic and explore the research gap. It group work involvement (Cooper, , p. ).
Job satisfaction further relates to the extensive magnitude in which people enjoy being at their jobs, doing their work as well as being rewarded for their efforts Hirschfield, As such, it is vital for organisations to strive to enhance the levels of job satisfaction amongst their employees, as this has a positive stimulus effect on the prosperity of the organisation Price, Work motivation may be defined as the individual's willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organisational goals, conditioned by the individual's ability to satisfy some need Robbins, The two-factor theory of motivation Herzberg,cited in Kanungo, distinguishes between intrinsic motivation e.
Results from contemporary organisational behaviour research have challenged and revolutionised the traditional proposition that extrinsic factors do not motivate employees. It appears then, that extrinsic behavioural contingencies as well as extrinsic motivation are both powerful determinants of motivated employee behaviour. Proposed relationships and hypothesis formulation for the study: Research demonstrates that a plethora of extrinsic motivation determinants have an influence on job satisfaction and life satisfaction.
The first scholars to explore this research area were Brayfield, Wells and Stratewho investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and extrinsic and intrinsic motivation through a review of various motivational theories.
A notable suggestion by these scholars is that continued research was needed to explore the relationship between motivational factors and job satisfaction. In this regard, a number of extrinsic motivational factors were considered in the formulation of the research hypotheses that reinforce a theoretical foundation for this study. Remuneration and job satisfaction: According to Tingremuneration has a significant influence on job satisfaction amongst government employees.
Similarly, Robbins emphasises that equitable rewards, which refer to compensation systems that are perceived as fair and in line with employee expectations, are a strong determinant of job satisfaction.JOB SATISFACTION
In another study conducted by Kebriael and Moteghedipublic employees attributed the dissatisfaction with their jobs to low benefits and salaries.
This demonstrates that when employees perceive that their remuneration is fair, they are most likely to experience a feeling of satisfaction. This is because income helps individuals to meet certain universal needs and, therefore, income, at least at lower levels, is an antecedent to job satisfaction and subjective well-being.
Based on the foregoing literature discourse the following hypothesis is formulated for this study: There is a positive and significant relationship between remuneration and job satisfaction.
Quality of work life and job satisfaction: The determination of staff perceptions about quality of work life is an important consideration for employers interested in improving employee job satisfaction because such perceptions play an important role in employee decisions to enter, stay with or leave an organisation Bagtasos, A study conducted by Lee, Singhapakdi and Sirgy reveals that quality of work life has a positive impact on job satisfaction, organisational commitment and comradeship.
It is expected then that there would be a positive association between quality of work life and job satisfaction.
Therefore, the following hypothesis is formulated for the study: There is a positive and significant relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction. Promotion and job satisfaction: It has been suggested that self-actualisation in the workplace can only be accomplished through the creation of opportunities for employee promotion Ting, This view is supported by Ellickson and Logsdon who conclude that satisfaction with promotional opportunities is positively and significantly related to the job satisfaction of municipal workers.
When employees perceive that there are high chances for promotion, they feel motivated to work harder to achieve organisational goals with a view to attaining elevated job designations and higher ranks Dessler, In light of the literature discussed in this section, a positive association between promotion and job satisfaction can be envisaged.
It is against this background that the following hypothesis is formulated for the study: There is a positive and significant relationship between promotion and job satisfaction. Supervision and job satisfaction: Supervision forms a pivotal role relating to job satisfaction in terms of the supervisor's ability to provide emotional and technical support and guidance on work-related tasks Robbins, This implies that supervisors contribute to high or low morale in the workplace Ramsey, In a study conducted by Ladeboit was also found that supervision is a predictor of job satisfaction, which in turn determines job performance and organisational citizenship behaviours.
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Based on the aforementioned conceptualisations, one would expect a positive relationship between supervision and job satisfaction. There is a positive and significant relationship between supervision and job satisfaction.
Teamwork and job satisfaction: For many public service employees, social interactions at work are a critical factor in job satisfaction. Empirical results from a study conducted by Acuna, Gomez and Juristo reveal that working in a team is closely associated with the possibility to learn new things as well as job enlargement elements which have been found to be positively associated with job satisfaction.
A study conducted by Viswesvaran, Deshpande and Joseph further corroborates previous findings in suggesting that there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and teamwork. Based on the foregoing discussion, it appears that the existence of a positive association between teamwork and job satisfaction amongst public service employees may not be contestable. In this regard, the following hypothesis is formulated for the study: There is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction and life satisfaction: As suggested by Zhang and Howelljob satisfaction is a key indicator of the overall life satisfaction amongst employees because it climaxes when jobs meet people's expectations. This implies that job satisfaction would be a subordinate component of life satisfaction, an observation made by Sirgy, Efraty, Siegel and Lee One of the most widely acknowledged theories that attempt to address the relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction is Chacko's spillover model.
Invariably so, an individual may bring to the job a level of dissatisfaction with life that can manifest itself as dissatisfaction with the job Buetell, However, the direction of the association between job satisfaction and life satisfaction is subject to extensive debate. For example, Rode suggests that there is a general spillover of affective life satisfaction to the work situation. Mount, Ilies and Johnson contend that job satisfaction is an antecedent to overall life satisfaction amongst employees such that employees who are not happy in their non-work activities will not be happy in their work activities.
In addition, Heller, Judge and Watson also acknowledge that job satisfaction has a positive influence on life satisfaction. Based on the aforementioned insights, the following hypothesis is formulated for the study: There is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Conceptual framework In line with the aforementioned hypotheses, this study suggests that remuneration, quality of work life, promotion, supervision and teamwork are the salient extrinsic motivation factors that positively influence job satisfaction.
Additionally, overall job satisfaction is a crucial mediating variable that positively enhances life satisfaction amongst public service employees. Figure 1 depicts the conceptual framework that is proposed for the current study. Research design In the present study, a quantitative research approach was adopted in which a survey questionnaire was distributed to employees within a designated South African public organisation.
The survey method was considered to be appropriate for this study because it easily facilitates the collection of data from large populations, making it easier to develop and administer the research questionnaire whilst generalising the research findings Malhotra, Research method Participants and sampling A total of respondents were recruited using the simple random sampling technique. All respondents were based in a government department in Gauteng province, South Africa, and were available to voluntarily participate in the study.
The size of the sample was determined using Green's rule of thumb which prescribes that no less than 50 participants are suitable for a correlation or regression analysis procedure with the number increasing with larger numbers of independent variables IVs.
Data collection procedure and measuring instruments Primary data were collected using a four-section questionnaire. Section A of the questionnaire measured different demographic attributes of the respondents. These included age, gender, race, education levels and job position.
The demographic questions were structured on dichotomous, multiple choice, interval and range response formats. Section B was composed of questions that elicited information on extrinsic motivation factors. The remuneration, promotion and supervision sub-scales were adapted from the job description index scale that was developed by Smith, Kendall and Hulin Section C of the questionnaire elicited the respondents' job satisfaction using the global job satisfaction sub-scale that was adapted from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire long-form designed by Spector Section D of the study used the satisfaction with life scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Larsen and Griffin to elicit information on the life satisfaction of the respondents.
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A Likert scale from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree was used to structure questions under sections B, C and D of the questionnaire. The Likert scale was used because it is relatively easy to construct and makes data easy to collect and analyse, which makes it suitable for surveys Kothari, The research instrument was administered to the participants in September In order to randomise the data collection procedure, data were collected from different units within the public service department.
In addition, data were also collected during different days and times. A trained employee of the department assisted in the collection of data. Furthermore, permission to collect data was granted by management before the research project was launched. Ethical considerations such as the participants' right to anonymity, confidentiality, privacy or non-participation, informed consent and protection from discomfort, harm and victimisation were adhered to during the administration of the questionnaire.
Cronbach's alpha values for the sub-scales ranged between 0. Additionally, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the entire scale was 0. Therefore, these results confirm the competence of the scale in capturing the factors examined in the study. The reliabilities of the scales used in the study are reported in Table 1. Table 2 Content and face validity of the instrument were ascertained through pre-testing the questionnaire with a conveniently selected sample of 50 respondents in the public organisation.
What is the relationship between Motivation, Teamwork and Job Satisfaction?
In addition, the questionnaire was also reviewed by three academics who are experts in the field of organisational behaviour. Based on the feedback from the pre-test and the expert reviews, a number of minor revisions were made to the questionnaire with a view to enhancing its validity in addressing the research questions Radhakrishna, Construct validity of the scale was assessed through exploratory factor analysis. The results indicated that there were no cross-loadings amongst constructs; hence, five extrinsic motivational factors were identified as being salient towards the satisfaction of civil service employees on their jobs.
Additionally, convergent validity was assessed through the computation of Spearman's correlations between the five extrinsic motivation sub-scales, job satisfaction and life satisfaction.
The results of the correlation analysis refer to Table 3 revealed that there were positive and significant relationships between all factors that were analysed, which provides evidence of factor convergence.
Moreover, convergent validity was indirectly assessed through an analysis of the Cronbach's alpha values. Predictive validity was measured through regression analysis. Causality was explained by four of the five extrinsic motivation factors with job satisfaction refer to Table 4. Similarly, the findings of the study demonstrated causality between job satisfaction and life satisfaction refer to Table 5thereby confirming the existence of acceptable levels of predictive validity in the current study.
Data analysis The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction in a public organisation. Extraction of extrinsic motivation factors In the study, exploratory factor analysis using the principal components analysis method and Varimax rotation was applied in order to identify extrinsic motivation factors. Scale purification was conducted during which low factor loadings, cross-loadings and low communalities were eliminated with a view to enhance 'interpretability of the factor structure' Malhotra,p.
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A minimum cut-off of 0. This is consistent with Hair et al. The total variance explained by the extracted factors was The results of the rotated component matrix, percentage of variance explained by each factor, cumulative percentage of variance and the eigenvalue criterion were assessed. Finally, a five-factor solution was developed, as the items were plausibly associated with the underlying factors. The rotated factor loading matrix, psychometric properties as well as the mean score values are reported in Table 2.
Factor one, labelled remuneration, comprised four items and accounted for The items that loaded onto the factor relate mainly to the total compensation that an employee receives in exchange for the services that were performed for the employer. Furthermore, the remuneration dimension was ranked third, with a mean score value of 4. Factor two, labelled quality of work life, comprised three items and accounted for Furthermore, the quality of life dimension was ranked second, with a mean score value of 4.
This indicates the moderate degree to which the respondents agreed that quality of work life was a very important variable in achieving high levels of motivation amongst public service employees. Factor three, labelled teamwork, comprised five items and accounted for The items that loaded onto the factor relate mainly to the extent to which the respondents felt that the collaborative efforts, synergy and team-building capacity of departmental units contributed immensely towards extrinsically motivating employees in the achievement of organisational goals.
Furthermore, the teamwork dimension was ranked fourth, with a mean score value of 4. This demonstrates the moderate degree to which the respondents agreed that teamwork was instrumental in achieving high levels of extrinsic motivation and, ultimately, job and life satisfaction amongst public service employees. Factor four, labelled promotion, comprised four items and accounted for 9. The items that loaded onto the factor relate mainly to the formal level of employee advancement within specific hierarchical job rankings, job tasks or other designations.
Surprisingly, the promotion dimension was ranked lowest fifth amongst the extrinsic motivation constructs, with a mean score value of 3. This indicates that the respondents' perceptions of the contribution of promotion in enhancing extrinsic motivation are restricted.
Factor five, labelled supervision, comprised five items and accounted for 9. Additionally, the supervision dimension was ranked third, with a mean score value of 4. This indicates the moderate degree to which the respondents agreed that the quality of managerial leadership, supervisor competence, feedback reports and supervisor support was a very important variable in extrinsically directing them to achieve organisational goals.
Extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction: Spearman non-parametric correlation analysis was used to establish the possible existence of a relationship amongst the sub-scales.
These results are reported in Table 3. The correlation matrix shows that there were positive and significant relationships between the five extrinsic motivation variables and job satisfaction 0. Similarly, positive correlation coefficients were established between the five extrinsic motivation dimensions and life satisfaction 0. This suggests that an increase in remuneration, quality of life, teamwork, promotion and supervision can stimulate job satisfaction and, ultimately, life satisfaction amongst public service employees.
Extrinsic motivation and job satisfaction: In this study, Malhotra's conceptualisation of linear regression analysis was adopted: Four principal assumptions were made that justify the use of linear regression analysis for purposes of predicting the existence of relationships amongst the variables. These are sufficient conditions for the least-squares estimator to possess desirable properties; in particular, these assumptions imply that the parameter estimates will be unbiased, consistent and efficient in the class of linear unbiased estimators.
Initially, normality was not violated in that the normal probability curve, which plotted residuals against predicted values, depicted limited outliers.
This suggests that the estimation of coefficients and the calculation of confidence intervals were not compromised in the study, making it feasible to fit a linear model. Such an exercise was deemed fit during the initial stages of the procedure as non-normally distributed data has the potential to distort relationships and significance tests.
Secondly, the sample was considered to be representative of the population for the inference predictions based on the normal distribution curve.
Similarly, a Durbin-Watson autocorrelation test statistic of 1. Finally, the positive correlation coefficients shown in Table 3 pinpoint the existence of linearity between extrinsic motivation and job satisfaction 0. None of the correlations in Table 3 reached a value of greater than 0. Table 4 reports on these results.
Collinearity statistics for the five extrinsic motivation factors were within acceptable values, indicating that multicollinearity was not a problem in the present study as the independent variables were not highly correlated. In accordance with the recommendation by O'Brienall tolerance values fell above the prescribed value of 0. Similarly, the rule of thumb observed by Pan and Jackson was satisfied with all the five dimensions demonstrating variance inflation factor VIF values ranging between 1.
Job satisfaction and life satisfaction The possible existence of a predictive relationship between job satisfaction independent variable and life satisfaction outcome variable was assessed through the computation of a second linear regression procedure.
Additionally, a small Durbin-Watson autocorrelation test statistic of 1. Table 5 reports on the results of the second regression model. Regression model 2 showed an R2 value of 0. Further examination of the collinearity statistics established a tolerance value of 0. These results suggest that H1 is supported and is therefore accepted in this study.
This demonstrates that the job satisfaction of public employees increases when their remuneration increases. A comparative study of both public and private sector organisations conducted by Buelens and Broeck revealed that civil servants were less extrinsically motivated and satisfied with their work because their remuneration was significantly lower than that of their counterparts in the private sector. An evaluation of job satisfaction in the extended public sector in Greece showed that public administrators administered extrinsic motivational instruments, more specifically the provision of fair wages, as an effective tool to improve productivity of employees Manolopoulos, Similar conclusions were drawn by Luddy in a study that examined the job satisfaction of public service employees in South Africa.
It appears, then, that remuneration remains an important extrinsic motivation factor that positively impacts job satisfaction amongst public service employees. These results suggest that H2 is supported and is therefore, accepted in this study.
These findings imply that job satisfaction increases with and is dependent on the quality of work life amongst public employees. Additionally, Koonmee et al. Moreover, Noor and Abdullar observed a positive interconnection between quality of work life and job satisfaction. It is important then for managers in public organisations to ensure that high levels of quality of work life exist in order to increase the satisfaction of employees at work. These results suggest that H3 is not supported and is therefore rejected in this study.
These findings illustrate that promotion of public employees does not solely trigger any significant increases in their job satisfaction. Synchronous with the findings of Naveed, Usman and Bushraweak correlations were found between promotion and job satisfaction. Moen and Rosen also confirm that there are instances where promotion is not a major factor in determining job satisfaction.
But be that as it may, the findings of the present study seem to contradict the established relationship between promotion and job satisfaction from previous studies McCausland et al. This discrepancy is puzzling. Public sector organisations tend to be hierarchical in nature, with most of the appointments to higher positions being driven by either internal or external politics MANforum, This is especially true in the case of South African civil service designations.
Also, lead your work teams by serving as a model, yourself. When employees see you approaching work in new ways to be more productive, they will be inspired to follow your actions. Feelings of Worth It is important to an employee's mental outlook to believe she is valuable to your company.
Encourage feelings of worth in your workers as a means of increasing motivation and job satisfaction. Praise your employees for exceptional performance, thank them for extra efforts, congratulate them on their talents and reward them with gift cards and other expressions of gratitude. Also, give them challenges such as leading a work team, designing a project or mastering the new office equipment and software, which can help increase feelings of worth when the challenges are successfully met.
Optimism A natural link exists between optimism, employee motivation and job satisfaction. While seeing the glass as half full rather than half empty is innate to some, it is a skill that has to be practiced by others.
Leaders in the workplace need to radiate optimism, especially during times of change or difficult circumstances, so their employees will follow suit. It might take time and repeated encouragement for some staff members to get on board with an "optimism" project, but it is worth the effort.
References 2 Closer to Home Systems: The Space Within Management Workshops: