Relationship between Individual and Society
The relationship between the government and the individual has long been a Now imagine another middle-class man, living in a society that formally rejects. The relationship between the individual and society has always provoked intense debate, the parameters set by the notions of structure and agency the extent to. A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations).
The family forms the main social unitwith most members being related by birth or marriage. This type of organization requires the family to carry out most social functions, including production and education.
Pastoral society Pastoralism is a slightly more efficient form of subsistence. Rather than searching for food on a daily basis, members of a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs.
Pastoralists live a nomadic life, moving their herds from one pasture to another.
Because their food supply is far more reliable, pastoral societies can support larger populations. Since there are food surpluses, fewer people are needed to produce food.INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY - FULL VERSION
As a result, the division of labor the specialization by individuals or groups in the performance of specific economic activities becomes more complex. For example, some people become craftworkers, producing toolsweaponsand jewelry. The production of goods encourages trade.
Relationship between Individual and Society (1063 Words)
This trade helps to create inequality, as some families acquire more goods than others do. These families often gain power through their increased wealth.
The passing on of property from one generation to another helps to centralize wealth and power. Over time emerge hereditary chieftainships, the typical form of government in pastoral societies. Horticulturalist society Fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have been cleared from the jungle or forest provide the main source of food in a horticultural society. These societies have a level of technology and complexity similar to pastoral societies.
Some horticultural groups use the slash-and-burn method to raise crops. The wild vegetation is cut and burned, and ashes are used as fertilizers. Horticulturists use human labor and simple tools to cultivate the land for one or more seasons. When the land becomes barren, horticulturists clear a new plot and leave the old plot to revert to its natural state. They may return to the original land several years later and begin the process again.
By rotating their garden plots, horticulturists can stay in one area for a fairly long period of time. This allows them to build semipermanent or permanent villages.
The size of a village's population depends on the amount of land available for farming; thus villages can range from as few as 30 people to as many as As with pastoral societies, surplus food leads to a more complex division of labor.
Specialized roles in horticultural societies include craftspeople, shamans religious leadersand traders. This role specialization allows people to create a wide variety of artifacts.
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As in pastoral societies, surplus food can lead to inequalities in wealth and power within horticultural political systems, developed because of the settled nature of horticultural life. Agrarian society Ploughing with oxen in the 15th century Agrarian societies use agricultural technological advances to cultivate crops over a large area. Sociologists use the phrase agricultural revolution to refer to the technological changes that occurred as long as 8, years ago that led to cultivating crops and raising farm animals.
Increases in food supplies then led to larger populations than in earlier communities. This meant a greater surplus, which resulted in towns that became centers of trade supporting various rulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants, and religious leaders who did not have to worry about locating nourishment.
Greater degrees of social stratification appeared in agrarian societies. For example, women previously had higher social status because they shared labor more equally with men. In hunting and gathering societies, women even gathered more food than men.
However, as food stores improved and women took on lesser roles in providing food for the family, they increasingly became subordinate to men. As villages and towns expanded into neighboring areas, conflicts with other communities inevitably occurred. Farmers provided warriors with food in exchange for protection against invasion by enemies.
A system of rulers with high social status also appeared. This nobility organized warriors to protect the society from invasion. Cleric, knight and peasant; an example of feudal societies Main article: In contrast to Auguste Comte known as father of sociologywho regarded the individual as a mere abstraction, a somewhat more substantial position by Durkheim held that the individual was the recipient of group influence and social heritage.
The studies of feral children, referred to earlier Anna, Isabelle, Kamla, Ramu etc. How is society constructed? How an individual helps in building society? For inter-actionists, it is through the interaction of the people that the society is formed. The main champion of this approach was Max Weber social action theoristwho said that society is built up out of the interpretations of individuals. The structuralists or functionalists tend to approach the relationship of self individual and society from the point of the influence of society on the individual.
Thomas, George Mead and Herbert Blumer were the most influential figures among the inter-actionists. Other recent approaches, which also place emphasis on individual, are ethnomethodology and phenomenology which is basically a philosophical perspective.
Symbolic interactionism emphasises the importance of symbolic means of communication—language, gesture and dress etc. A prominent theorist of the last century, Talcott Parsonsignored the American symbolic interactionists and tried to attempt a grand synthesis of individual action and large-scale structure in his theory.
But, his emphasis was heavily on the large-scale structure society.
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He believed that it is the structure of society which determines roles and norms, and the cultural system which determines the ultimate values of ends. His theory was severely criticised by George Homans No human being is known to have normally developed in isolation.
All this tends to show that no human being can normally develop in isolation. The organic or group-mind theories is correct in so far as it stresses the dependence of man on society.
But these theories almost entirely discount the roll of individual 4n social life and deny individuality to the individual. It is wrong to say that society is more real than its members, that our consciousness is only an expression of social consciousness, social mind.
Relationship between Individual and Society
The reality is that there exists a fundamental unit-whole inter relationship between the individual and the social order. The human child is at outset an organism belonging to an animal species. It is through his interplay with his parents and then gradually with other fellows friends, teachers that he gets his human nature and his personality. Every individual is thus the product of social relationship.
He is born to a society which subtly moulds his attitudes, his beliefs and his ideals. At the same time society also grows and changes in accordance with the changing attitudes and ideals of its members. Social life can have no meaning except as the expression of the lives of the individuals.
Society has meaning to the individual only because it supports and contributes to the ends, the purposes of individuals themselves. It is these ends which gives society a unity. It is by helping the development of individuality of the individual that society achieves its purpose and significance. There is thus a close relationship between individual and society. The more a society is complex and organised, the more the society affords opportunity for initiative and enterprise, the greater the degree of individuality among the members.
There is no inherent antagonism between individuality and society, each is essentially dependent on other. It would be however misleading to say that there exists complete harmony between individuality and society.