Public Policy and Public Administration
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic . administration; the management of public policy; executive- legislative relations; public budgetary processes and .. of comparative public administration, including: the major differences between Western countries and developing. Relations between administration and politics are often described in the context of . Friedrich commented: “The concrete patterns of public policy formation and. Public Administration and Public Policy Public Policy/Public Administration is the scientific study of the politics of institutions, structures and organizations.
In other words, public administration really matters. Public policy successes and failures cannot be understood apart from the management processes that convert them into action. Predictably, 50 distinct variations on the TANF theme emerged over time as states made myriad policy design choices, some of which resulted in dramatic differences between states for example, in the degree of discretion granted to counties and in the use of state-only funds to extend benefits beyond federal time limits.
Research to date suggests that the federal TANF reform — a major policy shift — generated huge disparities between states in the adequacy of their safety nets. These state-to-state variations result from differences not only in state policy design details and administrative sophisticationbut also in local management practices. It is tempting to hypothesize, based on this and similar examples, that high-level policy choices may not always warrant the fuss that they receive.
Are those the real questions? Regulation, for example, can be smart or stupiddepending on its design and administration.
I have come to believe that the path to better, smarter government starts with getting the details right, from the bottom up. And those details often reside at the fuzzy border between public policy and public administration, where policy designers and program administrators work together to solve real problems.
He called public administration an integrating science, and stated that public administrators should be concerned with both theory and practice. He argued that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientific method.
Modern American public administration is an extension of democratic governance, justified by classic and liberal philosophers of the western world ranging from Aristotle to John Locke  to Thomas Jefferson. He first formally recognized public administration in an article entitled " The Study of Administration ". The future president wrote that "it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy".
Separation of politics and administration Comparative analysis of political and private organizations Improving efficiency with business-like practices and attitudes toward daily operations Improving the effectiveness of public service through management and by training civil servants, merit -based assessment The separation of politics and administration has been the subject of lasting debate.
The different perspectives regarding this dichotomy contribute to differentiating characteristics of the suggested generations of public administration. By the s, scholars of public administration had responded to Wilson's solicitation and thus textbooks in this field were introduced.
Frederick Taylor —another prominent scholar in the field of administration and management also published a book entitled The Principles of Scientific Management He believed that scientific analysis would lead to the discovery of the "one best way" to do things or carrying out an operation.
This, according to him could help save cost and time. Taylor's technique was later introduced to private industrialists, and later into the various government organizations Jeong, Taylor's scientific management consisted of main four principles Frederick W.
Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.
Between Public Policy and Public Administration: The Relationship Matters More Than the Differences
Provide "detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task" Montgomery Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.
Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system approach: And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone. The separation of politics and administration advocated by Wilson continues to play a significant role in public administration today. However, the dominance of this dichotomy was challenged by second generation scholars, beginning in the s.
Luther Gulick 's fact-value dichotomy was a key contender for Wilson's proposed politics-administration dichotomy. In place of Wilson's first generation split, Gulick advocated a "seamless web of discretion and interaction". Gulick, Urwick, and the new generation of administrators built on the work of contemporary behavioural, administrative, and organizational scholars including Henri FayolFredrick Winslow TaylorPaul Appleby, Frank Goodnow, and Willam Willoughby.
The new generation of organizational theories no longer relied upon logical assumptions and generalizations about human nature like classical and enlightened theorists. Gulick developed a comprehensive, generic theory of organization that emphasized the scientific method, efficiency, professionalism, structural reform, and executive control. Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym; POSDCORBwhich stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.
Fayol developed a systematic, point treatment of private management. Second-generation theorists drew upon private management practices for administrative sciences.
A single, generic management theory bleeding the borders between the private and the public sector was thought to be possible. With the general theory, the administrative theory could be focused on governmental organizations.
The relationship between public administration and good governance : the case of South Africa
The mids theorists challenged Wilson and Gulick. The politics-administration dichotomy remained the centre of criticism. Public Administration experienced a kind of heyday due to the successful war effort and successful post war reconstruction in Western Europe and Japan. Government was popular as was President Eisenhower. In the s and s, government itself came under fire as ineffective, inefficient, and largely a wasted effort.
The costly American intervention in Vietnam along with domestic scandals including the bugging of Democratic party headquarters the Watergate scandal are two examples of self-destructive government behaviour that alienated citizens.
The costly Vietnam War alienated U. Public administration would have to distance itself from politics to answer this call and remain effective. Elected officials supported these reforms.
The Hoover Commissionchaired by University of Chicago professor Louis Brownlowto examine reorganization of government. Brownlow subsequently founded the Public Administration Service PAS at the university, an organization which has provided consulting services to all levels of government until the s. Later on, the human factor became a predominant concern and emphasis in the study of public administration.
This period witnessed the development and inclusion of other social sciences knowledge, predominantly, psychology, anthropology, and sociology, into the study of public administration Jeong, Appleby Policy and AdministrationFrank Marini 'Towards a New Public Administration'and others that have contributed positively in these endeavors.
In the s, new public management became prevalent throughout the bureaucracies of the US, the UK and, to a lesser extent, in Canada.
The original public management theories have roots attributed to policy analysis, according to Richard Elmore in his article published in the " Journal of Policy Analysis and Management ".