Adrenal and Pituitary Disorders
Biol Psychiatry. Jul 15;40(2) Adrenal gland volume in major depression: relationship to basal and stimulated pituitary-adrenal cortical axis function. When the hypothalamus produces corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), it stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenal corticotrophic. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, primarily affects release of glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens by the adrenal .
Thyroid Conditions Involving Hormone Production Latest Awards Endocrinologists can detect, evaluate and treat conditions related to the adrenal glands or pituitary glands. This requires unique training and experience, in part because symptoms of such conditions can be so diverse and disseminated that they often resemble those attributed to stress, diet, aging and other factors.
While not considered common, these endocrine conditions are nevertheless underdiagnosed, and they have profound effects on an individual who suffers from them: Adrenal and pituitary expertise is a complex, inter-related area of knowledge that is the special domain of the endocrinologist.
Adrenal Disorders Adrenal glands produce hormones the help the body control sugar, burn protein and fat and react to stressors.
These hormones have a very long list of vital effects, including on the immune system, on insulin function and on dietary metabolism. Kidneys of patients with this condition may not be able to regulate salt and water balance.
Blood tests, including for cortisol levels, help to reveal the disease. This chronic condition can be safely treated with daily dosing of replacement hormones—a therapy that must be carefully managed by the endocrinologist. Elevated production by the adrenals of cortisol over an extended period of time can cause obesity and other physical changes, as well as well changes in strength, energy and metabolism. Pituitary tumors often cause the condition.
An Overview of the Pituitary Gland - The Endocrine System’s Master Gland
Overproduction by the adrenals of aldosterone results in water build-up and increase in blood pressure. Medications to block the effects of aldosterone, and lifestyle changes, can effectively treat this condition.
The inner region is known as the adrenal medulla. Hormones of the Adrenal Glands The adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla have very different functions.
One of the main distinctions between them is that the hormones released by the adrenal cortex are necessary for life; those secreted by the adrenal medulla are not. Adrenal Cortex Hormones The adrenal cortex produces two main groups of corticosteroid hormones—glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids.
The release of glucocorticoids is triggered by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Mineralcorticoids are mediated by signals triggered by the kidney. When the hypothalamus produces corticotrophin-releasing hormone CRHit stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenal corticotrophic hormone ACTH.
These hormones, in turn, alert the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid hormones. Glucocorticoids released by the adrenal cortex include: Commonly known as cortisol, it regulates how the body converts fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to energy.
An Overview of the Pituitary Gland
It also helps regulate blood pressure and cardiovascular function. This hormone works with hydrocortisone to regulate immune response and suppress inflammatory reactions. The principle mineralcorticoid is aldosterone, which maintains the right balance of salt and water while helping control blood pressure. There is a third class of hormone released by the adrenal cortex, known as sex steroids or sex hormones.
The adrenal cortex releases small amounts of male and female sex hormones. However, their impact is usually overshadowed by the greater amounts of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone released by the ovaries or testes. Adrenal Medulla Hormones Unlike the adrenal cortex, the adrenal medulla does not perform any vital functions. But that hardly means the adrenal medulla is useless.
As such, the adrenal medulla helps you deal with physical and emotional stress. You can learn more by reading a SpineUniverse article about the sympathetic nervous system.
You may be familiar with the fight-or-flight response—a process initiated by the sympathetic nervous system when your body encounters a threatening stressful situation. The hormones of the adrenal medulla contribute to this response. Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla are: Most people know epinephrine by its other name—adrenaline.Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Functions, Animation
This hormone rapidly responds to stress by increasing your heart rate and rushing blood to the muscles and brain.