Body of water - Wikipedia
The smallest body of water is the brook, a natural stream of water that is found aboveground and is often called a creek as well. A brook is usually a A gulf is a large area of a sea or ocean that is partially enclosed by land. Looking at a map of. To sum it all up, there are no two oceans meeting in the Gulf Of Alaska, only this particular body of water in the North Pacific Ocean, known as the Gulf Of Alaska. the waters not mixing show the milky waters of the Copper River entering the. and rivers with salty ocean tides in a partly enclosed body of water—natural When river water meets sea water, the lighter fresh water rises up and from the ocean, and wastes are expelled in the surface waters. N.Y. The Algonquin Indians called the river Mohicanituk, “the river that flows both ways.”.
When river water meets sea water, the lighter fresh water rises up and over the denser salt water. Sea water noses into the estuary beneath the outflowing river water, pushing its way upstream along the bottom.
Often, as in the Fraser River, this occurs at an abrupt salt front. Across such a front, the salt content salinity and density may change from oceanic to fresh in just a few tens of meters horizontally and as little as a meter vertically.
Accompanying these strong salinity and density gradients are large vertical changes in current direction and strength. Pliny the Elder, the noted Roman naturalist, senator, and commander of the Imperial Fleet in the 1st century A. But when the velocity difference reaches a certain threshold, vigorous turbulence results, and the salt and fresh water are mixed.
Tidal currents, which act independently of estuarine circulation, also add to the turbulence, mixing the salt and fresh waters to produce brackish water in the estuary.
In the Fraser River, this circulation is confined to a very short and energetic frontal zone near the mouth, sometimes only several hundred meters long. In other estuaries, such as San Francisco Bay, the Chesapeake Bay, or the Hudson River, the salt front and accompanying estuarine circulation extend inland for many miles. The landward intrusion of salt is carefully monitored by engineers because of the potential consequences to water supplies if the salt intrusion extends too far. For instance, the city of Poughkeepsie, N.
Roughly once per decade, drought conditions cause the salt intrusion to approach the Poughkeepsie freshwater intake. The last time this happened, inextra water had to be spilled from dams upstream to keep the salt front from becoming a public health hazard.
11 Incredible Points In The World Where Major Bodies Of Water Join Together
The lifeblood of estuaries Estuarine circulation serves a valuable, ecological function. The continual bottom flow provides an effective ventilation system, drawing in new oceanic water and expelling brackish water.
This circulation system leads to incredible ecological productivity. Nutrients and dissolved oxygen are continually resupplied from the ocean, and wastes are expelled in the surface waters.
This teeming population of plankton provides a base for diverse and valuable food webs, fueling the growth of some of our most prized fish, birds, and mammals—salmon, striped bass, great blue heron, bald eagles, seals, and otters, to name a few.
The vigor of the circulation depends in part on the supply of river water to push the salt water back. The San Francisco Bay area has become a center of controversy in recent years because there are many interests competing for the fresh water flowing into the Bay—principally agriculture and urban water supplies extending to Southern California.
Estuarine circulation is also affected by the tides; stronger tides generally enhance the exchange and improve the ecological function of the system.
The Hudson estuary, for example, is tidal for miles inland to Troy, N. Some are self-inflicted; some are caused by the abuses of human habitation. An estuary, with all of its dynamic stirrings, has one attribute that promotes its own destruction: When suspended mud and solids from a river enter the estuary, they encounter the salt front.
Unlike fresh water, which rides up and over the saline layer, the sediment falls out of the surface layer into the denser, saltier layer of water moving into the estuary.
Body of water
As it drops, it gets trapped and accumulates on the bottom. Slowly, the estuary grows muddier and muddier, shallower and shallower. Occasionally a major flood will push the salt right out of the estuary, carrying the muddy sediment along with it. Sediment cores in the Hudson River indicate that sediment may accumulate for 10, 20, or even 50 years, laying down layers every year like tree rings. But then a hurricane or big snowmelt floods the river, wipes out the layers of sediment, and sends the mud out to sea.
It is good because a big storm can keep an estuary from getting too shallow too fast. In fact, it appears that over the last 6, years, the natural dredging by large storms has maintained nearly constant water depth in the Hudson estuary. Environmental regulations are far stricter now than they were 50 years ago, and we have stopped using many chemicals that play havoc with the environment.
For instance, polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs were banned in the s because they were shown to be toxic to fish and wildlife, and to the humans who consume them.
Trickle-down effects Billions of dollars are now being spent to clean up American estuaries contaminated by industrial pollution. The Superfund program of the U. In some instances, a salt-water sea has land on all sides of it, such as the Caspian Sea. Land will enclose partially a gulf, which contains part of an ocean or a sea. The Gulf of Mexico to the south of the eastern portion of the United States is a prime example.
Smaller Salt Water Bays are similar to a gulf in that land also will partly enclose them, but they are smaller.Mississippi River Rip in the Flesh
Coves, where the land encompasses the water most of the way in a horseshoe shape, contain less water than a bay. A cove can exist in a lake as well as an ocean or sea. In salt water, a channel is the type of water body that joins two bodies of water together, such as the English Channel.
The fjord, which occurs along coastlines of many countries such as Norway and Canada, is a narrowed inlet of sea water that has very high cliffs on both sides.
Lagoons typically are quite shallow compared to the rest of an area of salt water and are next to the coast. Lagoons sometimes have a sandbank or low-lying stretch of land between themselves and the main ocean so they lack waves. A sound, such as Long Island Sound off the coast of Connecticut, runs parallel to the shoreline and these wide bodies of water normally separate an island from the mainland.
The narrow threads of water that join larger waters to each other are straits. Sciencing Video Vault Moving Fresh Water Brooks, also called creeks, are the smallest moving fresh water bodies of water. They frequently flow into larger streams, which in turn dump into rivers. Rivers in the majority of cases empty into an ocean, sea or lake.
The smaller flowing waters that go into larger ones at all levels are tributaries. Rainfall and snowmelt contribute to these various fresh water bodies.
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